Table of Contents
The most recent advancements
New Technology and Its Impact
The Top Countries
Economic and Social Impacts
Psychopathy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Psychopaths are often portrayed as ‘cold-blooded murderers’. However, this stereotype is false. Many people with psychopathic characteristics are considered average citizens. Most achieve high-ranking positions such as lawyers or CEO’s because their psychopathic qualities allow them to excel at competitive workplaces. Approximately 20% (Dr. P.Babiek & co, 2012) of America’s criminal population is psychopaths. This means that approximately 400,000 people detained in detention facilities are psychopathic. Many of these psychopathic criminals were considered to be normal citizens even before being imprisoned. How can you define a psychopath from this? These are the most well-known traits of psychopathy.
Superficial charm is a callousness and lacks empathy
Manipulation, pathological lying – Impulsivity & Irresponsibility
Lack of remorse/guilt – Insincere emotions
Sexual Debauchery – Criminal Versatility/Juvenile Delinquency
They refuse to accept responsibility
Four times as likely as those with psychopathic tendencies are psychopaths to reoffend. Canadian researchers conducted a 1988 study that found that 80% of high-ranking criminals had reoffended after three years (S. Porter 1988). Psychopaths are not able to respond to rehabilitation, despite being often blamed for a failing system of criminal justice and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation refers to the process of making inmates change their lives and learning to avoid committing crimes. People with psychopathic tendencies are not able to benefit from the common rehabilitation methods. They do not discourage punishment. They are not afraid of “social stigmatization,” which is their characteristic. Dr. Nigel Blackwood of Kings College in London is a renowned forensic psychiatrist who believes that reward systems are the best for rehabilitating criminalized psychopaths. For example, rewarding good behaviour with special privileges like favorite food would be one way.
Recent DevelopmentsPsychological understanding has changed over the past four decades, and the amount of people interested in forensic psychology has grown immensely as a result of the media publicizing illicit cases, an example being the Ted Bundy murders. Recent scientific advances have made it possible to understand the mind of psychopaths thanks to the growing interest in forensic psychology.
Robert Hare invented the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, which is still in use today. It can be used to identify if a subject has signs of schizophrenia and to measure the extent of it. The PCL-R test can be used in clinical settings as well as in court. It assists the judge in making a decision about the sentence length and duration. Mind Disorders (2008).
Understanding psychopathy’s development is possible only if we understand epigenetics. Epigenetics, which is the study of the changes in an animal’s gene expression and not the reconstruction of the genetic code, is commonly referred to. Kristen Hovet a North-Dakota-based Science Editor states that violent schizophrenia is dependent on certain genetic components “interactingwith certain environmental insults”. These include inequality, perceived injustice, neglect, and suffering from loved ones. University of Wisconsin-Madison conducted an experiment to examine functional magnetic resonance images of prisoner’s heads. The experiment found that psychopaths have a reduced link between the ventromedial anterior cortex (vmPFC), as well as the amygdala. This is important because the Amygdala and the vmPFC are responsible for emotions such as fear, anxiety and empathy. Psychopaths struggle to exhibit these feelings.
New Technology and the ImpactTechnology continue to improve in modern times. Scientific research is becoming more accurate, accessible, and accessible. The state of psychology research has been vastly improved and new technologies have revolutionized the study psychopathy at a cellular level.
Seiji Okowa and his team at Bell Laboratories invented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the first ever. The brain scan is done using fMRI and the blood flow to the brain is measured as the person completes a task. The fMRI is based on the idea that energy requires glucose and oxygen. It shows which neurons use the most energy while performing a task (W. R. Uttal 2002). Psychologists use this imaging method to examine the brain’s physical functions.
Leader Countries Currently, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom are leading countries in psychopathological research. Israel, however, is leading in trauma-related mental disorders. Specifically, Harvard University (Massachusetts), Kings College in London, and Harvard University (Boston) are leading research in Psychopathic Study. Kings College’s forensic psychologist, Dr. Robert Nigel.
Government FundingPsychopathy and criminal research funding is necessary because the results could have an impact on thousands of lives. Without funding research or spending money, many people could lose their lives and be in danger. Government funding for forensic psychology, psychopathic research and criminal justice reform can make a significant difference in the rehabilitation of violent criminals with psychopathic symptoms. This case has been advanced by the government overseas.
Social and Economic ImpactsPhillipGarrido, a high ranking psychopath who currently spends 431 years behind bars is well-known for his kidnapping Jaycee, then 11, in 1991. Jaycee dugard was abducted 18 years ago by Garrido and the wife. She was repeatedly raped, fed lies constantly, and had two children by Garrido (Carla Norton, 2014. Phillip Garrido’s story was widely publicized, and continues to cause outrage worldwide, particularly because he has done it before. He was convicted in 1972 and 1976 of similar crimes, but he did not serve his entire sentence. He was often granted bail. Phillip Garrido, who was a notorious psychopath in prison, was freed on bail. Dugard suffered horrific injuries for 18 years. Jaycee Dugard’s Case raises the question whether psychopaths in prison should be freed or if the social risk is too high. The lives of those around them who are psychopathic are at risk by releasing them. But, will criminal psychopaths ever reoffend following their release? Some argue that criminals with psychopathic traits should be allowed to be rehabilitated in society, while others state that they have been transformed and are ready for real life. This doesn’t mean that psychopaths can be “cured”. While the PCLR test can still be conducted, psychopaths may lie to their benefit.
The debate centers on whether the economic cost of releasing psychopaths from jail is worth it. High-ranking psychopaths would be eligible for parole officing, technological monitoring, increased cop patrols in their area, increased therapy and constant cop monitorization. One ex-convict could also be monitored by a camera and microphone recording technology. This money would be obtained from bail and tax-payer money. This would add to the already high tax bill for most citizens. Is it worth the extra expense? But, it can also keep the neighborhood safe from potential threats. This increased amount will help to rehabilitate and provide a more stable environment for criminals to return to normal life.
Conclusion20% are criminals who are psychopaths. Some of these criminals can be deadly and violent, and they are often the worst offenders to ever have passed through the criminal justice system. Phillip Garrido and Ted Bundy are two examples of criminals who should never have been released from jail. Forensic psychologists around the world are also questioning whether psychopathy is curable. The prison system is designed to ensure equality and justice in all instances. Why should psychopaths be denied the chance of being rehabilitated or able to make amends? The ethical and social debates continue. However, there is still the question of whether psychopathic criminals should return to society.